Effect of Process Parameters on Efficiency of a Mechanical Expression Rig for Almond Oil and Its Physico-chemical Properties

VIVIAN C. AKUBUDE, J. N. MADUAKO, C. C. EGWUONWU, A. M. OLANIYAN, E. O. AJALA, C. I. OZUMBA, C. NWOSU

Abstract


The process parameters that can affect the extraction efficiency of a mechanical expression rig (MER) for almond kernel (Terminalia catappa) were investigated in an optimization study using central composite design (CCD). A four factor, five levels of CCD was applied to study the effect of moisture content (6 - 10% w.b), temperature (80 – 100oC), heating time (10 – 26 min.) and applied pressure (5.84 – 7.01MPa) using the chosen rage. The physico-chemical properties of the expressed Almond oil were also determined using standard procedure. The results of the study showed that all the variables significantly affected the expression efficiency at 95% confidence level. The optimum expression efficiency of 76.35% was obtained at temperature, pressure, heating time and moisture content of 93.34oC, 6.44MPa, 17.16 minutes and 8.71% wb respectively. This indicates that the MER performed satisfactorily. The experimental values were very close to the predicted values with p<0.05.The regression model obtained has provided a basis for selecting optimal process parameters for the recovery of oil from almond kernel using the MER. The physico-chemical properties investigated showed that refractive index, viscosity, saponification value, iodine value, free fatty acid value, acid value, peroxide value, flash, and fire points are within 2 the range suitable for many purposes as it showed that it is edible and conforms to CODEX standard for edible oil.


Keywords


almond seeds, mechanical expression, expression efficiency and central composite design.

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